|Erin Lindberg Petersen
Branciforte Middle School
Santa Cruz, CA
|6th Grade||4 Weeks|
- Are Echinodea the ultimate animal?
- Does the structure of sand dollars and sea urchins give clues to their survival, growth, behavior and reproduction?
- Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. (MS-LS2-1)
- Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict phenomena. (MS-LS2-2)
- Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. (MS-LS2-5)
- Construct an argument with evidence, data, and/or a model. (4-LS1-1)
- Students will work in partner and table groups to share and build on ideas.
- Students will present information to class.
- Students will work in math class to explore the idea of the Golden Rule.
- Students will write letters/emails to local and state representatives.
- Students will display scientific drawings in public space at school.
- Students will letters and make oral presentations in their ELA classrooms.
Science: claim, evidence, reasoning.
Mathematics: interpreting graphs, measuring radius, diameter and using them to calculate the circumference and area of their sand dollar test
Engineering: comparing 3D models of sand dollar and urchin tests, scientific drawing, analyzing models for information and using them to inspire further questions. Making diagrams and comparing to see structure of organisms.
Technology: researching online, Study Jams, Quizlets, emailing US senators and local representatives to encourage maintaining legal protection of our marine environments and continued support of climate change initiatives.
- Students will generate a list of questions in regards to the sand dollars’ test structure.(f)
- Students will make a scientific drawing of sand dollar test (S)
- Students will compare structure of sand dollar and urchin test and diagram(f)
- Students will write down first ideas on graphic provided by teacher to answer key question.(F)
- Students will research the key question by: reading texts, partner and table group collaboration/comparison of notes, diagramming structures, working on Evolution of Echinoderm Graphic, and viewing of Shape of Life video (f)
- Students will work on two quizlets(F)
- Students will then write down their next ideas to answer key question, using graphic and submit for a grade.(s)
- Teacher will use student answers on graphic to create a practice quiz. Students will take practice quiz.(F)
- Students will take quiz that will be similar in design and content to practice quiz.(S)
- Are Echinodea the ultimate animal? Have students write about how they changed over time to become one of the ultimate marine animals.
- Place echinoids on geologic timeline (f)
ANCHORING EVENT & PROCEDURE
Sand Dollar and sea urchin test observations and scientific drawing .
Where this curiosity began: show pictures of fossil sand dollar from the Gatun Formation in Panama.
Download a PowerPoint with an image gallery of Fossil sand dollars, sea urchins, and sea biscuits. Courtesy of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Invertebrate Paleontology Image Gallery.
- 3D Print a sand dollar test and sea urchin test.
- Provide each student with a sand dollar test
- Provide students with rulers and calculators to assist in measurements of sand dollars.
- Each table group of 4 should have: sand dollar test, 3D sand dollar test, 3D sea urchin test to explore
- Each student should have a nice piece of drawing paper
DAY 1: Work in Pencil
In a journal do a lesson (or review depending on what math skill students have) on calculating area and circumference. Have students do this math in journals. * These measurements can be used when the math teacher does her lesson on the Golden Rule
Students should observe a sand dollar test first. 1st observation should be written on the back of the drawing paper. The back of the drawing paper should say:
- Top observations
- Back observations
- Questions I have
Students should begin their drawings of the front and back side of sand dollar on the opposite side of the paper- continuing to write observations as they go. When drawings are complete have students discuss their observations with table group. Teacher can also write observations and questions on overhead so students can gather information from whole class ideas.
DAY 2: Work in Pencil
Hand students the graphic organizer.
Write learning goal on top of agenda- to be used for the rest of the unit.
The learning goal should be crafted from student questions from day one. Our learning goal : What does the structure of an organism tell you about how it survived, grew, behaved and reproduced? Let students know that you crafted the Learning Goal from their questions.
Have students look at all three models and fill in graphic organizer
Conduct an all class conversation:
- What information do these models provide?
- What information about the structure of these organisms do you still need?
- Is one model better than another?
(relatively little to no information on the internal structure of these organisms)
DAY 3: Work in Color Pencil: Second Ideas
Provide students with diagrams of sand dollars and sea urchins (internal structure)
Also hand out “Getting to know three Echinoderms”
Students should add second ideas to graphic organizer
View videos: third ideas
Put Post-Its on graphic organizer
Video 1: Time Lapse Movement of Sand Dollar
Video 2: Time Lapse of Sunflower Sea Star Eating Sand Dollars
Video 3: Shape of Life –5 part symmetry showing Sea Star to Sea Urchin to Sea Cucumber
Work on worksheet- Library day
Students will view the Shape of Life video- Echinoderms the ultimate animal:
After the first viewing, hand them the questions on page 2 that can be printed from Shape of Life website:
Have students view video again, pausing when necessary to answer the rest of the questions on worksheet.
DAY 6: Short day (35 min.)
Print “Evolution of Echinoderms” worksheet on page 1, from Shape of Life website.
Have students partner read the one paragraph summary, then answer the 6 questions on page 1.
DAY 7: Comparative Anatomy Day
Warm up in journal: If Echinoderms do not have a brain, what do they have?
What traits do animals share? Students write first ideas in journal.
Show the Comparative Anatomy video:
Have students write their second ideas to ” what traits do we share?” In journal.
DAY 8: Marking the text: this could be though in 2 days
Begin with a YouTube song about Echinoderms
(they are hard to listen to, but have the basic info)
Challenge your students to make a better song!
Core English and History department is working on reading complex text so we are too!
Use the Encyclopedia.com “Echinodermata” article.
- Have a discussion with students about why having strategies to attack complex text is important and give examples of when in their academic lives and in their careers these skills will come in handy.
- Read a paragraph, have students follow along.
- Highlight key words.
- Annotate when you feel necessary.
- Return to the original Sand Dollar and Sea Urchin Exploration graphic and add ‘next ideas” in pen.
DAY 9: Library day
- Review Shape of Life video
- View sand dollar dissection
- Take quizlets. * You could make your own quizlet, but we suggest some that were already made to save time.
- QUIZLET: Echinoderms, 12 terms by tzirzowl
- QUIZLET: Echinoderms, 23 terms by teacher knordy-jhs
- QUIZLET: Echinoderms, 2-28 terms Challenge quizlet by teacher christian
- View resource pages from Shape of Life: Sea Star Egg fertilized, Life cycle of Sea Urchin
- We also made a quiz review packet and handed out to students (coming soon).
Sea Urchin & Sand Dollar Dissection (Part1)- Coe
Sea Urchin & Sand Dollar Dissection (Part2)- Coe
DAY 10: Review Packet
DAY 11: Quiz and library day to review Geologic Time
- Use geologic time scales to place appearance of echinoderms: geologic time tour UC Berkeley
- Pinterest: Geologic time scale with pictures
- Geologic time scale with change in landforms
- Pinterest: Geologic time scale with major events
- Echinodermata change over time
Marine Biologist: Gail Kaaialii
View- A Success Story: Echinoderms from the Shape of Life page
DAY 13 & 14
Library resource overview of Geologic Time
Note taking day
- Give students the printouts of 5 Mass Extinctions and the sand dollar fossil record.
- View geologic time video(s)
- View UC Berkeley’s Systematics: click on Echinodea.
- Read Fossil Record Echinodermata and the Natural History Museum Evolution reading and view 3D models.
- View the British Chalk Fossil site with students.
- Click on Echinodea to see fossil variation.
- Look for body structures we recognize in modern day echinoderms.
- Use notes to place sand dollars over time on geologic time scale in notebook.
- Post a large time scale in classroom, and have students help place sand dollars into correct time frames.
- Have students compare modern day sand dollar structure to changes over time.
- There is potential here to do a compare/contrast writing piece.
Return to the Learning Goal question and ask students to write about how echinoderms have adapted over time to become one of the ultimate marine dwelling animals.
DAYS 13-16 Have potential for deeper inquiry into the fossil record and change over time. Perhaps an add on on how to classify animals and make cladograms.
NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS (NGSS)
Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. MS-LS2-1
Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. MS-LS2-2
Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. MS-LS2-5
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes:
Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. 4-LS1-1
Science & Engineering Practices
Connection to Lesson
|• Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. (MS-LS2-1)
• Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict phenomena. (MS-LS2-2)
• Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. (MS-LS2-5)
• Construct an argument with evidence, data, and/or a model. (4-LS1-1)
|Identify where in your lesson science practices appear.|
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Connection to Lesson
|• Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. (MS-LS2-1)
• In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. (MS-LS2-1)
• Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. (MS-LS2-1)• Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared. (MS-LS2-2)LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
• Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth’s terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem’s biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health. (MS-LS2-5)LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans
• Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on— for example, water purification and recycling. (secondary to MS-LS2-5)ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
• There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem. (secondary to MS-LS2-5)LS1.A: Structure and Function
• Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (4-LS1-1)
|Identify where in your lesson disciplinary core ideas appear.|
Connection to Lesson
|• Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-LS2-1)
• Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships. (MS-LS2-2)
Stability and Change
Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
Connections to Nature of Science
Systems and System Models
|Identify where in your lesson crosscutting concepts appear.|
MP.4 Model with Mathematics
• 6.RP.A.1 understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities.
• 6.EE.B.6 use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.
• * this would fall more into Annie Harris’ lesson on the Golden Rule- 7.RP.A.2 recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.
• RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts
• RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually ( diagram, graph etc.)
• WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
• SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
• SL. 8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on topics, texts, issues, building on others’ ideas and expression their own clearly.
RESOURCES & MATERIALS
All resources are embedded into each day within the procedure.
Gatun Sand Dollar (above)
Student Work Sample: Download PDF
KEY ACADEMIC AND/OR SCIENTIFIC LANGUAGE
*We did a unit on fossils prior to this lesson, as well as lessons on how to scan and 3D print objects. * these are not necessary before this unit, just helpful
Students should be familiar with and inquiry. Our lessons this year have been designed so that student questions drive the course. Student questions often guide me to new resources designed to p them discover answers without me telling them.Students have had multiple avenues to approach a new concept, to make observations then to ask first questions, followed by investigation, small group work to gather information. This process is followed up with second observation or next questions. We often go in a third time, and then complete the inquiry lesson with further questions that I can then weave into my next lessons or units.